Legal challenges to the on-line quality monitoring (monitoring) plan for the invasion of Britain and Europe tens of millions of people's privacy.
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The UK spy agency GCHQ is facing a legal challenge in the European courts over claims that its mass online surveillance(监察) programmes have invaded the privacy of tens of millions of people across the UK and Europe. Three campaign groups – Big Brother Watch, the Open Rights Group and English PEN – together with the German internet activist Constanze Kurz, have filed papers at the European court of human rights claiming that the collection of vast amounts of data by GCHQ is illegal.
The move follows revelations by Edward Snowden that GCHQ has the ability to collect more than 21 petabytes of data a day – equal to sending all the information in all the books in the British Library 192 times every 24 hours.
Daniel Carey, lawyer at Deighton Pierce Glynn, which is taking the case, said: "We are asking the court to declare that unlimited surveillance of much of Europe's internet communications by the UK government, and the outdated regulatory system that has permitted this, invade our privacy." Files leaked by Snowden show GCHQ and its American partner, the National Security Agency, for which he worked, have developed abilities to undertake industrial-scale surveillance of the web and mobile phone networks. This is done by searching for the servers of internet companies and collecting raw data from the undersea cables that carry web traffic. Two of the programmes, Prism and Tempora, can sweep up vast amounts of private data, which is shared between the two countries.
The revelations have led to widespread concern in Europe and the US about the power of the UK and US security services to gather online communications. Last week Lord King, a former Conservative defence secretary, called for a review of the laws used to justify surveillance and interception(窃听) techniques.
Nick Pickles, director of Big Brother Watch, said the regulatory system was no longer fit for purpose."The laws governing how internet data is accessed were written when barely anyone had broadband access and were intended to cover old-fashioned copper telephone lines," he said."Parliament did not intend those laws to permit collecting details of every communication we send, so it's absolutely right that GCHQ is held responsible in the courts for its actions."（371w）
36. What is GCHQ accused of according to the passage?
A Sending all the information in all the books in the British Library.
B Collecting vast amounts of information of the US government.
C Invading the privacy of a great number of Britons and Europeans .
D Claiming its mass online surveillance programmes.
（根据第一段第一句The UK spy agency GCHQ is facing a legal challenge in the European courts over claims that its mass online surveillance(监察) programmes have invaded the privacy of tens of millions of people across the UK and Europe.）
37. Who revealed the secret of GCHQ?
A Constanze Kurz B Edward Snowden C Daniel Carey D Lord King
（根据第二段的The move follows revelations by Edward Snowden或者第三段的Files leaked by Snowden show GCHQ）
38.What doe the word “This” in Paragraph 3 refer to ?
A Collection of raw data from the undersea cables.
B Search for the servers of internet companies.
C Ability of GCHQ to undertake surveillance of the web and mobile phone network.
D Leaks of national security by its American partner.
（根据第三段abilities to undertake industrial-scale surveillance of the web and mobile phone networks.）
39. Which is TRUE according to the passage?
A Lord King considered it necessary to review the laws on justifying surveillance and interception techniques.
B The revelations haven’t caused any concern in related countries.
C Private data from Prism and Tempora is shared by Germany and The UK.
D Nick Pickles believes that the laws on how internet data is accessed needn’t updating.
（根据第四段Last week Lord King, a former Conservative defence secretary, called for a review of the laws used to justify surveillance and interception(窃听) techniques.）
40. In which session are you likely to read the passage in a newspaper?
A Science B Education C Entertainment D News